Environmental Studies

Toxicology study of molluscicides metaldehyde on fresh water fish

Metaldehyde is a molluscicide used to control snails and slugs on a wide variety of sites, including turf, ornamentals, berries, citrus, and vegetables. Metaldehyde is extensively used to control snails such as Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea incularum in most paddy field in the northern region of Malaysia. But scientific study on the toxicity effect of Metaldehyde towards non-target organisms especially aquatic biota and soil organisms exposed to either lethal or sublethal concentrations of this pesticide has not been reported.

Since Metaldehyde is widely applied in paddy fields, it can cause vital fatality to aquatic biota especially fish. A paddy field synantropic species of fish, Anabas testudineus or locally known as Puyu is popular local favourite freshwater fish. During the lifecycle of this species, it is vitally exposed to Metaldehyde which is the main snails control pesticide recommended by the Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA). However, Anabas testudineus is remarkably abundant and possess high survivability in metaldehyde-containing environment compared to other available fish such as Trichogaster trichopterus (Sepat), Channa striatus (Haruan), and Puntius schwanenfeldii (Lampam Sungai). Therefore, the use of this species in ecotoxicological evaluation in regards to biochemical markers (enzymes) and to evaluate the pernicious effects of xenobiotics like Metaldehyde is highly significant.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of molluscicides Metaldehyde on the biochemical changes in Anabas testudineus. The assessment will include detection of variation on the activity of three enzymatic biomarkers acetylcholinesterase (AChE) when exposed to Metaldehyde contamination. This is important as it is significantly correlated to the modes of action of metaldehyde inducing severe alterations and ultrastructural destruction in mucocytes which leads to dehydration and subsequent death of Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea incularum. Currently, this study is progressing towards global research interest between UniMAP and the GU8 universities consortium for collaborative ecotoxicological study.

Effect of Pesticides on Microbiology and Chemical at the Irrigation System for Coastal Area


Pesticides are generally substance or mixtures of substances created for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest. Pest might be insects, mice and other animals, weeds, fungi, or microorganism like bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, it’s one of the wellsprings of water defilement with genuine dangers to the human creature mend. It additionally causes changes in the biological communities with hurtful results for nature's turf and agribusiness because of the rise and spread of new vermin and ailment with subsequent expanding in the need for utilizing more pesticides. Aside from that, conventional methods, analysis of pesticide residue is time consuming and costly. Thus, a rapid, simple and reliable technique using the application of an ion selective sensor system such as e-tongues in analyzing pesticide detection will give a lot of advantages.

  • To identify the presence of pesticides and the quality of water in paddy field.
  • To identify the active chemical compound and the bacteria species at paddy field.
  • To classify the type of pesticides in paddy field.